Lower Impact Production

Fashion production entails a vast number of processes, many of which have a significant negative impact on our planet. Our supply chains are complex, with tiered suppliers (Tier 1 to Tier 4) contracting each other from the sourcing to the finished garment.

Understanding the landscape and identifying the main drivers of impact are critical to mitigating climate change, restoring biodiversity, and protecting oceans.

Within textile production, wet-processing has significant negative impacts across a number of key environmental indicators, including energy consumption, water use, chemical pollution, microfibers, etc.

For example, the majority of GHG emissions’ of brands arise from the upstream wet-processing phase of the textile production. Those indirect emissions (Scope 3) from supply chains pose unique challenges to reach our targets for climate. CDP estimates that a company’s Scope 3 emissions is more than 11 times higher than a company’s Scope 1 & 2 emissions – the emissions that a company directly produces from its own operations – combined.

For Scope 1, 2, and 3 definitions click here.


In order to move forward in these areas, there are many systemic challenges that must be overcome to allow for concrete collective action to take place. It is clear that better collaboration between brands and suppliers is needed to improve transparency, to understand where the fashion sector should act, and to align on the best approaches. We have started the movement.

Scope 3 Decarbonisation

With our Scope 3 approach, we want to illustrate the phases needed to achieve decarbonisation of brands Scope 3 Tier 2 processes – the area identified as the biggest emitter of GHG, hence the biggest opportunity to reduce emissions and mitigate climate change in line with SBTi.

The process starts with the individual commitment and understanding of impact and must be followed by quantification, tracking, and public reporting of GHG emissions in line with the UNFCCC Fashion Charter. As an industry, we rely on Tier 2 supplier (processing facility) transparency to identify supplier clusters with the potential to reduce emissions and create targeted joint actions. Suppliers need both technical & financial support to transition at the pace we all need to reach our ambitious climate targets.

The Fashion Pact's Tier 1-4 illustration that includes raw material production, raw material processing, fabric production and garment assembly


Close-up mechanism of a fiber processing machine, breaking down the plant.

Supplier Sprint

In 2023, we conducted “sprint” workshop sessions with members to collectively assess how to best identify, share, and engage with suppliers while guaranteeing confidentiality – a critical prerequisite to many Fashion Pact joint actions.

The sessions were focused on wet processing suppliers (Tier 2/Tier 3) as this is where the majority of the fashion sector’s impact lies. They led us to identify key areas and recommendations for enhanced collaboration, such as supply chain visibility, as well as transparency in order to work collectively with other Fashion Pact members while adhering to anti-trust guidelines.


Fashion production process in a factory for the textile sextor, carding department.


Definition of Scope 1 2 and 3 and examples of where emissions come from


Suppliers Tier 1 Support Package

A document which can be used either by producers, suppliers, or by brands and retailers wanting to work with suppliers to learn more about supply chain action. Date of publication: 2020

Suppliers Tier 2 Support Package

A guidance aiming to help fashion companies get started and accelerate their progress on climate. Specifically, this guidance sets out to present cost-effective climate strategies, provide clarity on the basic steps to develop a climate strategy, a useful overview of related terminology and ideals, and connect you to the right external guidance documents and organizations. Date of publication: 2020
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